• Facilliate donation of unmarketable crops
  • Improve availability of agricultural extension services
  • Improve market access
  • Improve harvesting techniques
Handling and Storage
  • Improve access to low-cost handling and storage technologies (e.g., evaporative coolers, storage bags, metal silos, crates)
  • Improve ethylene and microbial management of food in storage
  • Introduce low-carbon refrigeration
  • Improve infrastructure (e.g., roads)
Processing and Packaging
  • Re-engineer manufacturing processes
  • Improve supply chain management
  • Improve packaging to keep food fresher for longer
Distribution and Market
  • Facilitate increased donation of unsold goods
  • Change food date labeling practices
  • Change in-store promotions
  • Provide guidance on food storage and preparation to consumers
  • Improve inventory systems
  • Facilitate increased donation of unsold goods from restaurants and caterers
  • Conduct consumer education campaigns
  • Reduce portion sizes
  • Ensure home economics taught in schools, colleges and communities
Flow Chart

For each member economy, we calculate the losses in each stage of the food supply chain using the regional loss percentage defined by Gustavsson et al. (2011) and FAO's Food Balance Sheet of 2011. A schematic flowchart of the calculation is given as follows:

Example: Calculations on losses and waste of Vegetables in UNITED STATES. The figure below shows the mass flow of total Vegetables (1000 tons), as presented in the 2011 Food Balance Sheet for UNITED STATES.

First through the Allocation factor we determines the part of the agricultural produce that is allocated for human Consumption or Fresh use

Fresh food: 8157*0.4 = 12236
Processed food 8157*(1-0.4)= 18354

Calculations on primary equivalent F&V losses and waste in each step of the FSC:

Agricultural production: (0.2/(1-0.2))* 27074 =6768.5 thousand tonnes
Postharvest handling and storage: 0.04* 27074 = 1082.96 thousand tonnes
Processing and packaging = 0.02*(18354+3967) =446.42 thousand tonnes
Distribution (fresh food): 0.12*12236 = 1468.32 = 1468.32 thousand tonnes
Distribution (processed food): 0.06*(18354+3967-446.42) =1312.47 thousand tonnes